MS-DOS OR DOS stand for Microsoft Disk Operating System or Disk Operating System. It is for the single user system. Not more that it is also called a  system software. It is found on a hard disk. DOS  is loaded in the Ram when we open the computer. Ram is also called a main memory of a computer.

Functions of DOS are as follows:---

1):-- It function is to organization of hardware components with software.

2):--It function is to load and  execute  a program that is done by user on that computer.

3):-- It function is to organize the file on the disk in a orderly way.


Booting is also known as the process of loading DOS into the main memory that is Ram. When we start a computer and try to boot it from the hard disk. The display of the computer display different messages such as follow  below : ---

C:\>  ___________________Cursor.

C:\>  ___________________Current Disk.

C:\>  ___________________Root Directories.

C:\>  ___________________Prompt required to show the directory.


Every Directory holds a files and subdirectories. In each of the disk there is a at least one directory. This directory is known as the main directory or the root directory. The directory name must contain a 1-8 charaters.


  1. 1.Com
  2. 2.The
  3. 3.Sit

You get a directory name that has some meaning.


Files hold a different type of program and different type of data. Each of the file is known by his file name. These type of file are maintain by using of various directory.

File Name

The name of the file must contain a 1 to 8  character in nature. It is represented by using a 1 to 3 character.File name is mandatory where as the extension name is not much mandatory.if we want to give extension name we must use a dot.

Such as :---

Chandan is a file name and abc is a extension name whereas file name and extension name is separated by a dot.


This is a type of a file name without using the extension name.


Some of the important DOS commands:---

1):---C:\> dir

This type of command is used to show all the names of  files and a subdirectories. It show the following type of things are as follow:--

  1. 1.Name of File
  2. 2.Extension Name
  3. 3.Number of the Bytes
  4. 4.It gives the Right Date and time of the creation of the Files or Directiories.

When a directory contain a large number of files and subdirectories then it is good to scroll over your computer screen for a better reading.

2):-- C:\>  dir/p

This is a type of command which is used to give page wise display of a files and a subdirectories in a specific directory. It show the following type of things are as follow:--

  1. 1.Name of File
  2. 2.Extension Name
  3. 3.Number of the Bytes
  4. 4.It gives the Right Date and time of the creation of the Files or Directiories.

We use any of the key while we try to move from one page to another.

C:\>  dir /w

This type of command is used to show 5 names in one line of all the files and subdirectories present    in a specified directory. It shows following are as follow:--

  1. 1.Name of File
  2. 2.Extension Name

C:\>  dir /ad

It is used to display all the name of the subdirectories contained in a specific directory.

C:\>  ver

This command is used to see a version of the MS-DOS that you use on your system.

D (root directory)  ----------------- Chandan (directory) ------------------physic(sub-directories)  dl.bcd                                                                         

D (root directory)  ----------------- Chandan (directory) ------------------math(sub-directories)   mark.bcd

D is a type of root directory.

Chandan is a sub-directory of a root directory of D and root directory for physic and math.

Physic and math is a sub-directories of a chandan directory and a sub-directories of a root directory of D.

dl.bcd and mark.bcd is a file present in the specific sub-directories physic and math.

How to make a directory:----

C:\>  md  chnadan

Command which is used to make a directory is md.

Chandan is used as name of the directory.

How to delete a file:---

C:\chandan\physic> del dl.bcd


C:\chandan\math> erase mark.bcd

In this section we use a del or erase command to delete a file from directory or sub-directories.

How to remove a directory:---

C:\chandan\physic>  cd   ------------------------- 1st process(It remove file and sub directories)           

C:\chandan> rd physic    -------------------------2nd process(It remove directory).

We use rd command to remove a directory.To remove the directory first of all we have to remove all the sub directories  and file that is present in that directory after that we are able to remove a directory.

How to remove all the file that is present in a directory physic :-----

C:\chandan>  cd physic

C:\chandan\ physic>

C:\chandan\ physic>  del**

How to remove a directory physic and math :-----

C:\chandan\physic>  cd………

C:\chandan> rd physic

C:\chandan>  cd………

C:\>  rd  chandan


By apply this process you are able to delete all the directory.

How to move from a C drive to other drive on your computer:---

C:\> a :

We can use a command a: to move from C drive to other drive.

a : \ >

It indicate that we are in a other drive.

We use the reverse case while you want to move from other drive to a C drive.

a:\>  c:

Here we use a c: command which is used to move from other drive to C drive.

By clicking on the icon such as MS_DOS prompt we can go to DOS prompt.It will appear just like this as below:-----


There are some command use in C- programming to make save , compile , run ,and see a result of you programme:------

  1. 1.F2 -  This key is used to save a program written by you.
  2. 2.F3 -  This key is used to open a program that is save by use in your previous session.
  3. 3.F9 - This key is used compile your program written by you.
  4. 4.Ctrl F9 - This key is used to run the program written by you.
  5. 5.Alt F5 – This key is used to see the result of your executed program.
  6. 6.Alt X – This key is use to came out from the TC editor section.

Windows operating system

It is also known as the GUI (graphical user interface).This type of operating system is a user friendly operating system. It is different from the DOS operating system because there is no need to remember any kind of command to run your computer because all the thing will be display on the computer screen itself that why is known as user friendly operating system. Till now there are various kinds of windows operating system release. Today we use a window 7 operating system. It does not develop to a that much it takes a lots of period and many form of window operating system pass in that period.

Different components of the windows operating system are as follows:--------

In this section we take a simple window operating system for a example.


The top most part of the any windows operating system is called a title bar as indicate above.The following thing it can display these are:----

  1. 1.Window Name
  2. 2.Minimize button , maximize button and Close button as show below figure.These all buttons are on the right hand side of windows.

1. Minimize button is used to minimize the window which you open.

2. Maximize button is used to maximize the minimize window.

3. The close button is used to completely close the window.


Menu bar is a part of the window display just below the title bar.It contain a lot of option such as FILE , Edit , View , Insert , Format , Help , Tools , Window. For using each of the option you have to pull down each of the option down ward.


This option is display below the menu bar. It contain a number of icons s in figure.When you create any document this option play very important role without this you are not able to make a document.


This option is display just below the standard tool bar and this portion contain a lots of command for your document in the form of a buttons.

Suppose that there is no tool for formatting and even there is not a standard tool bar you have to choose a view option from the menu command and dragging down ward a menu is open on the side of the window use that as a standard and formatting tool bar.


It function is to display the total number of item are present in the windows.It also display the total memory  are taken by that item.


When you work on the window then you need a mouse and keyboard to give a instruction to the window. Among the both of the mouse and keyboard mouse is better for windows operating system.

Basic function of mouse are as follow:-----

  1. 1.It move on the pad and as we move it also move on the computer screen.
  2. 2.When the mouse curser is pointing on any of the icon we click it to open an application.
  3. 3.If you are in a hurry then you press right mouse twice to immediate open an application or folder.

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